Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Battle of Thermopylae Essay Example for Free

Skirmish of Thermopylae Essay 300 is a fictionalized portrayal of the 460 B. C. Clash of Thermopylae. Adjusted from Frank Miller’s realistic novel 300, chief Zack Snyder clearly focused on this true to life exhibition as verifiable as the Spartan’s greatness. Driven by King Leonidas (Gerard Butler), the 300 best Spartan troopers battled to death against the Persian King Xerxes’ (Rodrigo Santoro) crusade of administering the universe of men, spare the last one named Dilios (David Wenham) who lived to announce the magnificence of the 300 and obviously, relate the story from the introduction of King Leonidas to the rigors of a Spartan soldier’s life. Through this story strategy, we are brought to the universe of unusual confronted warriors, excellent and reviled prophets, sex blow out, 460 B. C. political insidious and huge fantastical brutes that made the entire film an activity chronicled dream rather than a study hall verifiable narrative. Made by CGI special visualizations innovation, the film is a picture duplication of the first comic book. The unworldly animals became animated, a negligible number of throws looked a hundred thousand or somewhere in the vicinity, the stunning all encompassing foreboding shadows added a lot of dramatization to the dim scenes and the downpour of guts and blood were unmistakably implied for activity suckers instead of the shoe supporters. In reality, human butcher never looked so lovely. Be that as it may, you don't should be a comic book or a PC movement fan to appreciate this true to life milestone. The cinematography is the thing that catches your eye in an alternate manner as Gladiator or Lord of the Rings or Troy could possibly do. In spite of the fact that I need to include that joining a portion of the said movies’ most ideal chances like the Gladiator’s bright wheat field scene, the olliphant-like animals from LotR and the bird’s eye see regiment shots from Troy, gave us a few minutes kind of history repeating itself however by and large, Snyder got his work done entirely well in making this 460 B. C fight fantastically convincing. From the edges to the shading plans, the 300 film seemed as though an actually cleaned storyboard. Each edge is excellent and each board is a true to life feast. Not at all like the in fact benchmarking battle among Hector and Achilles in Troy, the battles in 300 are taken NOT from a vantage purpose of an observer, yet from an eye level of someone who has a place in the battle†¦ someone who moves in the fight. Loaded up with moderate movement shots, the edge nearly sticks to give a further zoom of the astounding successions. The impact? All things considered, the crowd were carried up close and personal to the adventure of the Battle of Thermopylae than they would ever envision. The manner in which the film streamed gave us a comic book feel to pretty much every scene except liberated us from the beautiful sight sparkle of the comic book. The tied monster Persians, the disease looking older folks and warriors, the unbelievably arranged battles and the lance causing blood showers looked fiercely more staggering than what paint brushes or computer game film-production would ever do. The incongruity of the unique effects’ sway on making a scene of the past while setting a realistic future increased 300 its more extensive acknowledgment. The unbelievable visuals were ridiculous frantic and savage, which is actually what that time is about and what our time attempts to remember, in fact. We know how this is made. Shots were inside against a blue screen and the foundations were included utilizing CGI procedures. (Film buffs get the hang of this strategy after Twilight delivered a selective narrative of the CGI behind their film). Lacking of an elite player throws and costly shooting areas, we can say that the movie’s enhanced visualizations got everyone's attention. Indeed, even Gerard Butler’s directing voice won't be given that much stunningness without the small acoustic touch. Be that as it may, the visual methods which so enormously utilized didn’t simply become the movie’s achievement however too the motion pictures fizzling. Having it overwhelm the substance made pundits not so much reveled but rather more grumbling. Many said that whatever the film hugely have in style, it needs human feelings and consequently miss the mark in depicting the recorded Battle of Thermopylae as a mankind's history, not an epic from a different universe. Spare Queen Gorgo’s (Lena Headey) shot to energize support for her significant other, every one of those fight addresses sounded vain for lacking edge bolsters. In any case, of course, the R rating could well cause us to comprehend that it’s the bleeding, fierce tricks that made us pay for the two-hour perfectly produced torments. To cite King Leonidas, â€Å"a new age has come, another freedom†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I surmise, we simply need to grasp it.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Career Development Essay

Profession Development Essay Hop to: Phases of Career Development | Career Development System | Steps for Career Development Plan | How to Create a Career Plan | Career Plan Example | Conclusions and Recommendations Presentation At the point when we were kids, all of us where considering being something or having explicit employment later on. Huge numbers of us were thinking to be specialists, instructors, police officer, pilot and so on But arriving at these positions or landed these positions won't be simple without comprehending what are we acceptable at and what are simply the ears that we need to develop ourselves in. Likewise on the off chance that we need to land these positions or positions we ought to have objectives and we need to function as hard as possible to achieve these objectives. All of us ought to have a vocation plan as a main priority when we move on from colleges or montage or even before that when we move on from secondary school on the grounds that having plan is consistently inspire us to study, work and create ourselves so as to accomplish and achieve our arrangement. At the point when we land our first position we ought to request vocation advancement plan and it will be greatly improved in the event that we could draw this arrangement ourselves since we realize what our qualities and shortcoming and we recognize what are the best trainings and projects we should take so as to develop ourselves. Vocation advancement is significant viewpoint in our working life and individual life. In our working life its significant in light of the fact that nobody of us needs or wishes to remain and a similar activity and a similar situation for ever, without creating or having the profession advancement plan we won't have the option to develop ourselves and get advanced. In our own life it is imperative to have vocation improvement plan we will have the option to make our families and companions cheerful and glad for us on the grounds that by having the profession advancement plan we will have the option to arrive at our objectives that we have consistently dream of. This paper is discussing the profession improvement and vocation advancement plan and how it is significant for the representatives and the associations. Vocation DEVELOPMENT Presently days there are numerous individuals change their vocations more than one time in their lives. For these individuals who change their profession for multiple occasions, they should know and comprehend the significant of the vocation advancement. (John Groth) The profession advancement is the conventional methodology utilized by the association to assist individuals with gaining the aptitudes and encounters expected to perform present and future occupations. (R. Wayne Mondy) The profession improvement process is the investigating of your abilities and what are your qualities and shortcoming. Profession improvement is additionally similar to an arrangement you structure it yourself to help you ahead of time through your vocation. (John Groth) The Roles of the Managers and the Employees in the Career Development (R. Wayne Mondy) Directors Evaluating the Performance Training and Supporting Controlling and Counseling Giving Feedback Providing Information Representatives Self Assessment Get-together Data Defining Goals Working with Supervisor Creating Plan THE THREE STAGES OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT: The First Stage is the Bring It in front of an audience: this is the principal stage in the vocation life. The age of the individuals in this stage is from the mid 20s to the mid 30s. Individuals in this phase of their profession improvement are dynamic, solid and ground-breaking. They decide to positively shape the universe of work. The majority of the individuals in this stage feel that they are solid and ready to do all that they requested likewise they can make what they need to occur. Achievement and conceivable outcomes are boundless during this stage. (Dan Strakal) The Second Stage is the Realistic Stage: the age of the individuals in this stage is from the mid 30s to mid 40s. During this stage explicit qualities and vocation real factors start to come out. At the purpose of the profession advancement, individuals of this stage feel that the qualities could make a contention between picking needs in their work life and their home lives. In the wake of going through 10 to 15 years in the workforce, individuals in this stage feel that they may not having the option to do what they were intending to by any means, since some of them are feeling that they are not controlling their own vocation predetermines. (Dan Strakal) The Third Stage is the Reinvention Stage: this is the last stage in the profession improvement. The age of the individuals in this stage is from the mid 40s to retirement. This stage begins when individuals started to reclassifying and accommodating their work life and individual life. Individuals during this stage have gained from numerous difficulties that they were looking in the last pervious stages and this is the best time to be center in making an inheritance of explicit commitments to be associated with in their vocations, their families and their networks. (Dan Strakal) THE ROLES OF THE LEADERS AND MANAGERS DURING THE THREE STAGES OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT : They need to discover approaches to coordinate people groups esteems, convictions, and practices to undertakings and errands. For instance it will be extraordinary on the off chance that they appointee individuals who are in the Bring it in front of an audience to the assignments or undertakings which need and required bunches of vitality. Get the individuals who are in the Realistic Stage to esteem included activities or errands so they can feel drew in and a piece of something significant and significant. For the individuals who are in the Reinvention Stage, pioneers and chief ought to get them in activities, for example, observing projects, organization history activities or administration advancement programs. (Dan Strakal) Chiefs and pioneer ought to comprehend the and information the three phases so as to have the option to forestall and tackle issues and clashes that might be happen because of profession advancement contrasts in qualities and viewpoints. (Dan Strakal) The Assessment Phase: The individuals who consider fruitful and fulfilling vocation need to comprehend themselves first. They additionally need to know how in what direction they can perform best at working environment. One of the key factors in vocation advancement is work fulfillment. Employment fulfillment is at its most noteworthy when the activity draws in the most grounded character characteristics of an individual and when the activity is in accordance with people esteems and perspectives. The fit among worker and association, as far as association nature and culture, legitimately influences representatives vocation advancement, execution and opportunities to succeed. Administration abilities are one of the key factors in vocation advancement, as well. Capacity to adapt to pressure adequately is another significant factor in profession achievement. Appraisals can assist people with understanding their favored exercises, work style, learn most ideal methods of working with others, and oversee clashe s. Encourages the improvement, arrangement, and mix of by and large hierarchical viability and capacities . Screens progress after some time . The appraisal assesses authoritative methodologies (forms), the degree to which they are conveyed, assessed/improved, adjusted, and incorporated all through the association, and their adequacy at driving hierarchical outcomes. Association evaluations are utilized for learning and improvement. Much like a yearly wellbeing physical, this instrument assists administrators with bettering comprehend what is functioning admirably and on what they ought to center their improvement endeavors. In any case, the genuine estimation of an appraisal is its capacity to improve execution to improve results and drive substantial authoritative outcomes. Furthermore, a couple of studies have demonstrated the estimation of an evaluation and foundational the executives system. Authoritative Assessment Open and private associations are unpredictable frameworks of communicating parts. So as to appropriately check the associations execution and its availability for transform, it is basic to take part in an evaluation for sure fire criticism and comprehension of issues, for example, Jobs and duties Work atmosphere Gathering elements Preparing needs Culture and standards Group conduct Interchanges Work forms Hierarchical Assessment Sequence Hierarchical Assessment is an orderly technique to accumulate data about an association, analyze explicit difficulties, and create approaches to address them. Compelling appraisal ought to be viewed as a window into the association, giving understanding into basic issues. It is the foundation of any change procedure, and gives the premise to deciding how an association will accomplish its vision. Status for change is a demonstrated and basic proportion of accomplishment. Evaluation is the initial phase in understanding the intricacy of associations and fundamental in estimating the conditions that are important for fruitful change. An intensive appraisal will help with building up a powerful change plan. The data accumulated gives the association a comprehension of its availability for change, just as the activities that will be fundamental for fruitful change. Hierarchical Assessments are a great initial move towards making a move to start positive authoritative change. Overseeing hierarchical change is a significant test for pioneers at all levels today. In surveying the viability of an association, it is imperative to initially comprehend its utilitarian reason . Self Assessment: Self evaluation is the initial step of the vocation arranging process. During a self evaluation you assemble data about yourself so as to settle on an educated profession choice. A self evaluation ought to incorporate a glance at the accompanying: Qualities: the things that are essential to you, similar to accomplishment, status, and self-governance Interests: what you appreciate doing, for example playing golf, going for long strolls, spending time with companions Character: a people singular qualities, inspirational drives, needs, and perspectives Notwithstanding figuring out what youre great at, an aptitudes evaluation likewise helps make sense of what we appreciate doing. The bearing stage: One of the most basic and significant stage during the time spent vocation improvement for workers in any association is the bearing stage that goes about as a brilliant connection between the appraisal and advancement stages since it has two principle jobs by driving the iden

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Ultimate Guide to Personalization

The Ultimate Guide to Personalization When historians write about this period of economic history, they will call it the age of the customer. The age of the customer is a term used to describe the age in which customers are now more empowered than ever before. Today, customers can get more information about more products at the touch of a button. Though it feels common place to most people, this is a truly revolutionary period in a very long history of commerce and trade.Because customers have greater access to products and services than ever before, the competition for their business is also greater than it previously was. No longer limited geographically, it is easy for a customer in Texas to order from an artist in Hawaii. People from all over the world can discover new merchants with the click of a button. However, this also means that they can change their loyalty just as quickly.To combat the huge fluctuations in customer turnover, businesses have turned to relationship marketing to build stronger relationships wit h their customers. One of the fastest growing strategies in relationship marketing is called personalization. © | OllyyThis guide will teach you on 1) what is personalization, 2) why customers want personalization, and 3) how to personalize your marketing.WHAT IS PERSONALIZATION?Personalization is a comprehensive strategy that requires a business to calibrate its strategy to be focused on the individual consumer. This is different than segmentation or re-segmentation of a market because even if a market segment is broken down into a smaller segment, it still requires a business to reach a group of people rather than an individual. Thus, when personalization strategists talk about the individual, they really do mean creating an experience that is customized for one individual.Personalization is not about finding a software application to address each consumer individually in an email heading. Although there is something that consumers find comforting about seeing their names, personalization has transcended these simple greetings and has instead opted for a fully customizabl e experience in which every detail from greeting to format to timing is tailored directly to the customer.To make this happen, marketers use the information gleaned from a meaningful customer relationship. When this relationship is used to generate data about an individual, marketers can use this data to create a unique experience for the individual customer.This information might come from facts provided by the customer. The rise of detailed online profiles provides much of this information. For example, Marriott Rewards members can customize their online profiles to include all of their travel preferences right down to the type of pillows they prefer in their hotel room.This information may also be based on the behaviors the customers exhibits or predictions based on the customer’s future needs. Marriott may look at a Marriott Reward’s member’s activity to see which brands they frequently search for. Marriott can see if a member is more interested in the Courtyard brand loca ted in suburban areas or if they are interested in the high end JW Marriott Brand. This activity about past behaviors can not only provide predictions about what kind of hotels that member is interested in. It can help Marriott better sell those hotels by allowing Marriott to alert that member when there is a special offer from the brands and areas they are most interested in.This kind of marketing may at first seem uncomfortable. However, upon further examination, it is easy to see why both customers and businesses find that it is worth the investment. For businesses, content personalization of this nature offers an ROI that is worth adopting. It costs 62% less than traditional marketing methods; yet, it generates almost triple the number of leads. The benefits for customers, however, are more psychological.Find out about the 5 key personalization statistics you should know.[slideshare id=36352150doc=5personalizationstats-140626153253-phpapp02w=640h=330]WHY CUSTOMERS WANT PERSONALI ZATIONLike many marketing trends, personalization began as a luxury item. It was first available to visionaries and those with deep pockets. After all, it costs a lot of money for Marriott to learn about what kind of pillows its loyal customers prefer. The benefit of this kind of individual data was not immediately visible on a business level. When it is considered in the context of the customer, it is invaluable.The value that personalized data offers businesses can no longer be ignored or overlooked. Personalization is now a necessity because the old methods of reaching customers are fizzling out. Old methods have fizzled so much that some marketers debated whether it was more likely that a customer would survive a plane crash than click on a segmented banner ad. This is a bold statement that is mostly false because there are still more people who, willfully or accidentally, click on advertisements than die in plane crashes.But if you think about the last banner ad you saw, you of ten have one of two reactions. The first is that you do not even remember the content of the last banner ad you saw. The second reaction is that you did not find that ad remotely compelling enough to click on it.The poor performance of banner ads is now being compounded by ad blocking software. Now that internet users are blocking ads on their computers and their mobile devices, the time that businesses have to adjust marketing strategies is growing shorter. If you want to reach customers, personalization is now one of the cheapest and most effect methods.Personalization is not the result of a marketing trend made popular by big agencies with deep pockets. Customers today want real engagement. The more personal this engagement is, the more valued it is by customers. They want a business who wants to meet their needs. That business does not need to be a small, boutique business. It can be a huge brand that serves millions of customers.The key is to make it easier for every customer t o find what they want. Customers do not want to feel like they are being “sold”, especially if the pitch is regarding products or services that they have no interest in. Personalization works well here because the strategy feels less like an elevator pitch and more like a helpful hint. However, personalization transcends the sales process in two unique ways.When an experience is tailored to an individual, that individual feels more in control. Even though you are still in control of the customer’s experience, the fact that they feel that they have more control over their outcome has a positive influence on their mindset. This is a huge distinction in the sales process for customers because one of the biggest roadblocks in sales and marketing is the customer’s innate fear of being sold something. Yes, customers want to buy. But they want that purchase to be their decision â€" not yours.Secondly, customers are tired of being fed information they don’t want. Despite greater a ccess to information, customers today have less time to make a purchasing decision. Even high-end purchases are rushed because this is an age where the next model is right around the corner.When companies personalize information for a specific customer’s needs, that customer does not feel like they are being overloaded with information. Instead, the customer feels like they have all the information that they were looking for right in front of them. This relieves a second roadblock on the path to sales. It eliminates the customer’s fear that they will be sold something they never wanted in the first place.Some great learnings from Netflix personalizing their offering.[slideshare id=38659840doc=contentwisewebinar-10lessonsnetflix-140903140643-phpapp02w=640h=330]HOW TO PERSONALIZE YOUR MARKETINGNow that you know more about what personalization is, it is easier to create a marketing plan that fits this structure. A personalization marketing plan will often be broken down into four d istinct parts: targeting the customer, sending the message, executing the strategy and delivering the personalization.Targeting the CustomerPersonalization requires a wealth of customer data. Rather than focusing on market segments, it requires businesses to take on real, individual data. A rich user profile can help marketers achieve this insight.User profiles should not be set up to provide you with basic data like names, income bracket or contact details.Be sure to collect data from the customer that can help you learn more about the customer. This data should be relevant to your product and service as well as easy to collect. Avoid forcing the customer to type too much or push too many buttons. Instead, collect as much information as possible on one page without compromising the utility of the page.For example, an airline would not collect only names and contact details when creating a user profile for customers. It would allow customers to enter details like meal preferences, s eat preferences as well as any further interests that are applicable to the product.This works because it masquerades itself under the guise of convenience. Customers will happily provide a small amount of relevant personal details if it means that their next flight will be enhanced or more convenient in some way.Personalization should not just be informed by online behaviors. Retailers, in particular, should focus on offline behaviors, as well. Both sets of behaviors are required for greater insight and better advertising.To do this, you need to create an ongoing one-on-one relationship between your business and your customer. Relationship marketing only works if a relationship is being fostered over time. This relationship needs to be long term and needs to anticipate customer needs today and tomorrow.Sending the Right MessageThe messages you send to customers must be relevant to the data that you have collected. From a customer point of view, there is nothing worse than providing details to a company only to be spammed about products that the customer is only vaguely interested in.More than this, the language that you use to send the message needs to match the content. You do not want to send a message that sounds like you ran a customer’s data through a software program and came up with a result. Even though this is what happens behind the scenes, that will feel more intrusive to customers. It will also eat away at the personalization goals rather than contributing to them.Furthermore, the tactics you use need to be genuine. Showing customers an ad for something they just viewed on your website is not personalized marketing. It needs to speak to the needs and habits of the individual consumer in a way that captivates them. The goal of your message should be to leave your customer wondering how you knew that they were interested in that product but still being grateful that you found out.Executing the StrategyOnce you have your message, you need to think about execution and timing the message. The timing within which a customer receives the message is almost as important as the message itself.Example: A customer returns to your site regularly to browse the cost of flights from New York to Los Angeles in April. To personalize their messages, you are sending them a personalized message letting them know about new, cheaper services between New York and similar destinations in California. However, you would want to make sure that this message is sent out with plenty of time for them to buy before their travel dates.The key to great execution is to use the data you have to find the exact time that a customer will be most receptive to the message that you are sending. Most people need to take time off of work. They also want time to plan a trip. Offering a personalized ad for a last minute flight to a customer who has been looking at the same flight for six months will probably not result in a purchase.You also want to mix up the timing o f your strategies between an “act now” strategy and an informational message. This allows the customer to allow themselves to take advantage of flash sales occasionally but also allows them to put more planning into their purchase as well. Achieving a balance is a good plan for execution because it does not put too much pressure on the customer but still encourages them to make impulse purchase occasionally.Delivering PersonalizationDelivering the personalized message needs to take place in real-time across several channels. This kind of coordinated approach is necessary for driving interaction between the customer and the business.Delivery is also an important part of executing the strategy. While it is easy to reach millions of people at once, it has simultaneously become harder to reach just one individual. A cross-channel delivery is one of the best ways to deliver personalized messages because it helps ensure that the customer receives the message.  For example, you could s end the airline customer an email and a notification in the airline’s mobile application to better increase the chances of the customer seeing the message and acting on it.  The easier it is to find the message and act on it, the more success the message will have.When you are delivering personalized messages, you should also be considering your follow up message delivery. The amount of follow up you do will depend on the number of messages you intend to send.You want to find a balance between sending enough messages to remind customers about your first message. You want to keep the emails limited enough to make the offers feel exclusive; however, you want to offer reminders as well.CONCLUSIONPersonalization used to be the marketing strategy of the future, but today, it is a tactic that a business should be adopting sooner rather than later. Personalization offers customers all of the benefits that they love about small, local businesses. It allows them to learn about products tha t they are interested in without having to sift through mountains of information. It also allows them to do so in a sphere that feels more private to them than the traditional marketing experience.A great personalized marketing experience should remind a customer of a visit to their local baker. There is nothing better than the baker rewarding your loyalty by setting aside your favorite pastry to make sure that you get one before they run out.Big and small companies can replicate this experience by investing time and money into gathering essential and relevant data about their customers. Whether it is the type of pillows they prefer or the customer’s shoe size, a business of any size can recreate the feeling of getting the very last bear claw straight from the baker’s oven.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Synthesis of New Solid Forms of Bumetanide and Their Characterization - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1843 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/03/18 Category Analytics Essay Level High school Tags: Characterization Essay Did you like this example? 1. INTRODUCTION Bumetanide (BUM) is a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category, (3-(butylamino)-4-phenoxy-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid) most often used to treat heart failure. Most often used in the people whom high dose of furosemide or other diuretics are ineffective. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Synthesis of New Solid Forms of Bumetanide and Their Characterization" essay for you Create order The main differences between bumetanide and furosemide are the bioavailability and potency. Mostly 60 percent of furosemide is absorbed in the intestine, and these are substantial inter and intra-individual differences in the bioavailability (range 10-90%). About 80 percent of bumetanide is absorbed, and these absorption does not change when it is taken with food. It is said to be a more diuretics, meaning that the predictable absorption is reflected in a more predictable effect. Bumetanide drug are 40 times more potent than furosemide for patients with normal renal function. It is sometimes used for weight loss because, use as a diuretic, and removes water from body. The study of solid state chemistry of pharmaceutical solid focuses on all disciplines right from drug discovery to successful marketing. A clear understanding of the molecular structure can lead to a better design and control of the drug performance. Moreover, interest in the subject of pharmaceutical solids stems in th e part from FDAs substance guideline that states appropriate analytical procedures to be used to detect polymorphic, cocrystals, hydrated or amorphous forms of the drug substance. Solid forms are usually more stable than liquid counterpart. The main factors which affect the oral route absorption are aqueous solubility, physical/chemical stability, and permeability. The fundamental parameters, i.e. aqueous solubility and gastrointestinal permeability which define oral drug absorption are used as the basis for the BCS classification scheme. These biopharmaceutical classes are defined as below figure.-01 Solubility and permeability parameters defined by FDA and according to it, A drug substance is considered highly soluble when the highest strength is soluble in 250 mL or less of aqueous media within the pH range of 1- 6.8 at 37 ? ± 1? °C and A drug substance is considered to be highly permeable when the systemic Bioavailability or the extent of absorption in the humans is determin ed to be 85 percent or more in to the administered dose based on a mass balance determination (along with evidence showing stability of the drug in the GI tract ) or in comparison to an intravenous reference dose. 1 Bumetanide is the diuretics agent, belongs to BCS class II. A survey by Lin et al.3 revealed that almost 40% of marketed medicines and 90% of emerging new chemical entities suffer from poor solubility which allows them to be eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract before they get completely dissolved and absorbed into the blood circulation, thus results in low bioavailability, less potency, and higher dose strength. For these classes of drugs, higher dose strength would be required to ensure therapeutic concentration in blood but it may lead to adverse or toxic effects on the recipients body. Thus, new solid forms of the API, which may overcome these problems without affecting the chemical nature of it, greatly reduces the risk, time and cost in development. 1.1. Types of solids forms: Longer range order shorter range order Crystalline Amorphous Liquid crystalline Single component multiple component Ionic non-ionic Polymorphs Salt Molecular adduct Solvates/Hydrates Cocrystal Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others are liquid, gas, and plasma). Solids molecules are closely packed. These are characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes in the shape or volume. Unlike a liquid, or a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does. All atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass). Solids cannot be compressed within the little pressure whereas gases can be compressed within little pressure because in gases molecules are loosely packed. In mate rials science, polymorphism is the ability in a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. Polymorphism can potentially be found in the any crystalline material including polymers, minerals, and metals, and is compare to allotropy, which refers to chemical elements. Most pharmaceutical molecules are polymorphic. Polymorphism is an ability of a chemical compound to crystallize depending on the crystallization conditions in different crystal structures alias polymorphs. Molecules in the crystal structure of a Polymorphs are bonded by weak interactions (H-bridges, Van-der Waals forces, - interactions). Amorphous materials have an internal structure made up of inter-connected structural blocks. This blocks can be similar to the basic structural units found in the corresponding crystalline phase of the same compound. Whether a material is liquid or solid depends upon the primarily connectivity between its elementary building blocks so that solids are characteriz ed by a high degree of connectivity whereas structural blocks in fluids have lower connectivity. In pharma industry, the amorphous drugs are shown to have higher bioavailability than their crystalline counter parts due to the high solubility of amorphous phase. Moreover, certain compounds can undergoes precipitation in their amorphous form in vivo, and they can decrease each others bioavailability if administered together. 1.2. Crystal Engineering: Crystal engineering developed over the past 65 years as a natural outcome of the interplay between crystallography and chemistry. Chemistry deals with the molecules while crystallography deals with regularly arranged molecules. The term Crystal engineering was coined by pepinsky in the year 1955. According to pepinsky, crystallization of organic ions with a metal-containing complex ion of suitable sizes, charges and solubilitys result in structures with cells and symmetries determined chiefly by packing of complex ions. These cells and symmetries are to be good extent controllable; hence crystals with advantageous properties can be engineered. Crystal engineering is an interdisciplinary area in chemistry, which bridges, chemistry and crystallography. In the present decade, research is mainly focused on controlling the directionality and strength of intermolecular interaction in the design of molecular crystals. A. I. Kitagorodskii gave the definition of the molecular crystal which state that, within a molecular crystal, it is possible to identify groups of atoms such that for every atom of a group, at least one inter atomic distance within this group is significantly shorter than the smallest inter atomic distance to an atom in another group. 4 He invoked a question, molecule to crystal, he stated that packing of molecular solids was largely governed by considerations of size and shape, the so-called principle of packing. Today, X-ray crystallography is a matured science and has a far-reaching impact on material characterization. The structural insights obtained from crystal structure analysis led to unprecedented developments in electronic devices, mineralogy, geosciences, material science, and pharmaceuticals. Detailed knowledge of accurate structural information of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a prerequisite for rational drug design and synthesis of new chemical entities for the development of new medicines. As research progressed with time, the focus shifted to multicomponent molecular crystals (cocrystals). The knowledge obtained from the analysis of the crystal structures is used in the selection of conformer for cocrystal design. A successful cocrystal synthesis requires the understanding of supramol ecular synthons that occur most frequently between the functional groups of cocrystals components. Hence, the design of cocrystals for a given molecule starts with analyzing the functional groups available on that molecule and finding complementary functional groups which would likely form predictable supramolecular synthons. Thus, the conformer selection in a cocrystal design strategy reinforces a more significant role of the knowledge of intermolecular interactions which is often drawn from X-ray crystal structure analysis. In a crystal, molecules are associated with a specific pattern of non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, halogen bonds,5 and -stacking. Over the past century, single-crystal X-ray diffraction has proven to be an important tool for unambiguous determination of crystal structure, and thus, assisted in ground-breaking analysis of material properties. Concerning cocrystals, structural characterization (a) establishes the reliability of cocrystal design s trategy, (b) reveals hydrogen bind preferences of the functional groups, and (c) provides insights into structure-property correlation. Crystal engineering is a concept of great application and scope. Presently, it focuses on more practical applications such as pharmaceutical cocrystals and high energy materials, etc. Fig.1. Crystal engineering involves modification Of the crystal packing of a solid material by changing the intermolecular interactions.6 1.3. Non-covalent Interactions: Non-covalent interactions are ubiquitous in chemistry and are the primary source of stability for many molecular complexes in biological, pharmacological. Chemical, physical, and material sciences, etc. while traditional chemistry focuses on the covalent bond, crystal engineering and supramolecular chemistry exploit the non-covalent interactions which hold molecules together in a crystal lattice. These forces include hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, Van-der Waals forces, - inte ractions and electrostatic effect. 1.4. Hydrogen Bond (strong and weak): Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic and play an essential role in stabilizing the molecular aggregates. Nernst first introduced the phenomenon of hydrogen bong formation in 1891.7 Bernel and huggins proposed the term Hydrogen bond in the year of 1935-36.8 In the year of 1939, Linus pauling defined the hydrogen bond as under certain conditions, an atom of hydrogen is attracted by rather strong forces to two atom instead of only one, so that it may be considered to acting as a bond between them. The more elaborative and expanded definitions were given by many scientists as the increased interest of research in this field, which include Pimentel and McClellan (1960),9 IUPAC stated that the hydrogen bond (designated as D-HA, where acceptor A and donor D are electronegative atoms) is an attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom from a fragment or molecule D-H in which D is more electronegative is that H, and an atom or a group of atoms A, in the sam e or different molecule where there is evidence of bond formation. Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol. The hydrogen bond is not a simple interaction but a complex conglomerate of at least four component interaction types: electrostatics (acid/base), polarization (hard/soft), van der Waals (dispersion/repulsion) and covalency (charge-transfer). It is neither a strong van der Waals interaction nor a weak covalent bond. It is not even a strong directional dipole-dipole interaction. For geometrical parameters of hydrogen bond see figure-2. This interaction characterized through X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, NMR, FT-IR and RAMAN spectroscopes. Three types of hydrogen bond exist very strong, strong and weak(table 1.1). 11 Because of this dual nature (very strong/weak), it attract many scientists all over the world. Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic interactions, but the proportions of electrostatic character can vary. A more expanded proposed definition of a hydrogen bond is as any interaction X-HA with a shallower energy/distance dependence should be termed as a hydrogen bond. Table No.01: Classification of Jeffrey11 for strong, moderate, and weak hydrogen bonds (the numerical data are guiding values only) Strong Moderate Weak interaction type strongly covalent mostly electrostatic electrostatic/dispersive bond length [?†¦] HA 1.2-1.5 1.5-2.2 2.2 lengthening of X-H 0.08-0.25 0.02-0.08 130 90 bond energy [kcal/mol] 15-40 4-15

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Mgt 450 - Week 5 Final Paper - 4034 Words

Acting Strategic Growth Plan For DTAG Student Name MGT450: Strategic Planning for Organizations Instructor: Carol Hooper-Boyd August 12, 2013 Acting Strategic Growth Plan For DTAG Strategic management is very important in the business world. It is the way leaders or organizations steer their company to success over both the short- and long-term. It encompasses a host of decisions that range from what the company will produce, to how it will compete in its industry, to how it will grow over time. At the heart of strategic management is strategic planning. In this paper, the company Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group, Inc., will be analyzed as a strategic plan is presented in regards to growing the business over the next three years.†¦show more content†¦With the purchase of DTAG by Hertz, it effectively changes this to just three major organizations and should give Hertz Dollar Thrifty the edge in market share since both were major players on their own before the acquisition. As a current employee for the organization, I have a lot of insight as to what makes the company tick as well as where it may fall short in servicing its customers and employees. Due to the high level of competition in the car rental industry, which is predominantly based on price, there is not a lot of distinction between competitors. How DTAG tries to differentiate itself from the industry, though, is by trying to facilitate a smooth transaction for its customers with excellent customer service from all aspects of the rental transaction. An example of such a smooth transaction is the fact that at many locations (including the one that I work at), the rental agents do not assign a vehicle at the rental counter. Once the rental agreement is set up and a car class is selected, the customer goes out to the parking lot and chooses any vehicle they like from the selected car class. Also, if the customer would like to, they could choose to upgrade to another car class with the lot agents that are outside. This effectively keeps the lines at the rental counter moving while also putting some control in the hands of the customer. It also streamlines the rental process to allow the rental agents to take care of moreShow MoreRelatedIntroduction to Materials Management169665 Words   |  679 PagesEducation Singapore Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education Canada, Ltd. Pearson Education—Japan Pearson Education Australia Pty. Limited Pearson Education North Asia Ltd. Pearson Educacià ³n de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Pearson Education Malaysia Pte. Ltd. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-233761-8 ISBN-10: 0-13-233761-4 From the Library of PREFACE Introduction to Materials Management is an introductory text written for students in community colleges and universities. It is used in technicalRead MoreAccounting Systems, Internal Controls, and Ethics28179 Words   |  113 Pages Accounting Information Systems ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS, INTERNAL CONTROLS, AND ETHICS Prepared for the course team by Vimlesh B. Narayan Unit 1 Contents Unit 1 Contents 2 Concept Map 3 Learning Outcomes 4 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Accounting System Design 6 System Objectives and Design Factors 6 Designing the System 8 1.3 Internal Control Systems 17 Objectives of Internal Control Systems 17 Structure of Internal Control Systems 18 Why You Should Consider the ComponentsRead MoreService Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Public and Private Universities in Tanzania22790 Words   |  92 PagesAcknowledgement iii Dedication iv Abstract v Table of Contents vi LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi CHAPTER ONE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background information to the problem 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem 5 1.3 Objectives of the study 6 1.4 Research Questions 7 1.5 Research hypothesis 7 1.6 Significance of the Study 7 1.7 Limitations of the study 8 1.8 Organization of dissertation 9 CHAPTER TWO 10 LITERATURE REVIEW 10 2.1 IntroductionRead More THE IMPACT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN IMPROVING STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES65118 Words   |  261 Pages114 vii Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Findings Introduction Survey Administration Data Coding Response Analysis Construct Analysis Hypothesis Testing – Main Effect Summary of Main Effect Hypothesis Testing 120 120 120 122 122 125 147 168 Chapter 5 Results, Conclusions, and Recommendations Introduction Summary of the Study Discussion of the Results Conclusions Limitations of the Study Recommendations for Future Research References Appendix I: Information Quality Questionnaire Items Appendix II:

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing Brave New World and Blade Runner - 1324 Words

Human relationships, and humanitys understanding of the wild, are shaped and reflected in Blade Runner, by Ridley Scott, and in Brave New World (Aldous Huxley) through their composers use of the contrast between true nature and the wild. The human relationship with the wild is tenuous, and this is shown within both texts. More often than not, nature is understood simply as a force to be dominated, controlled or exploited for the benefit of humanity. The new wild is one created by human society however, although developed and sustained by the characters, the wild seems to control and manipulate humanity, rather than the reverse. In Blade Runner and in Brave New World, the nature of happiness and freedom is one of the most recurrent†¦show more content†¦In contrast to this, the discovery by Rachael of her true identity, a replicant, destroys the illusion of happiness her place in society had given her; Rachael: Im not in the business. ...I am the business. But this allowed her to discover a semblance of freedom. The failure of the replicants to truly become a part of human society is that they are too much a part of the new wild, perfect in the face of humanitys flaws, and so are separate from true nature and humanity... In Brave New World, true nature is constrained and separate from society; the new wild is humanitys creation; here, Savage has been rejected from the natural in the reserves, but Savage cannot cope with the demands of the new wild - London society - and so withdraws from it into what he perceives as the natural world. ...Loathsome civilised stuff! ... To sing and enjoy himself was not why he had come here; it was to escape further contamination by civilised life... However, Savage is continually confronted by the new wild beyond his attempts to escape it; so hangs himself in a final rejection of it. Characterisation is the main technique used in conveying the theme of societys overturningShow MoreRelatedA Comparison of the Themes of Blade Runner and Brave New World1480 Words   |  6 PagesA Comparison of the Themes of Blade Runner and Brave New World ‘Humanity likes to think of itself as more sophisticated than the wild yet it cannot really escape its need for the natural world’ Despite different contexts both Aldous Huxley within his book Brave New World and Ridley Scott in the film Blade Runner explore the idea that humans feel themselves more sophisticated than the natural world, yet are able to completely sever relations between humanityRead MoreMuch Ado About Nothing Key Scenes4885 Words   |  20 Pagesmarriage. Quotes from this passage: â€Å"He is of a very melancholy disposition† *Means: about Don John, always miserable â€Å"The one is too like a image and says nothing and the other is too like my lady’s eldest son, evermore tattling† *Means: Beatrice comparing Don John and Benedick â€Å"By my troth, neice, thou wilt never get thee a husband, if thou be so shrewd if thy tongue† *Means: Leonato said that if Beatrice doesn’t stop making such cutting comments she wont get a husband. â€Å"Lord, I could not endureRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 PagesDESIGN DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR George Hoffman Lise Johnson Carissa Doshi Dorothy Sinclair Matt Winslow Amy Scholz Carly DeCandia Alana Filipovich Jeof Vita Arthur Medina Allison Morris This book was set in 10/12 New Caledonia by Aptara ®, Inc. and printed and bound by Courier/Westford. The cover was printed by Courier/Westford. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright  © 2009, 2006, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1986, 1981, 1976 John Wiley Sons

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Great Virtues free essay sample

I think that Aversion to Tyranny definitely still exists In America today. We still do not have any dictatorship In todays America. We vote as a democracy for our presidents, congress, etc. We do have a president, to represent America and to help make final decisions, but we get to choose who we want to elect. Basically, its power to the people, even though we have a presidential leader to help guide us. The second virtue Ben Franklin wanted America to have was Free Press. Basically, what this meant was that you can write or print whatever youd like and not et in trouble for it.Although there were some limits to this, there was little to no government control of the press. This let people say what they wanted and free minded write in the press. Franklin said, There would be very little printed, if publishers produced only things that offended nobody. l, myself have to agree to this, because If you think about it, its true. Franklin also believed that the surest guard against tyranny and arbitrary power was free expression, the free flow of Ideas and a free press. He felt no tyrannical society could long exist, If It cannot control the low of information and ideas.Like the first virtue, free press still exists today. You are able to freely write what youd like in the press. For example, it is okay to write to the newspapers and write a letter to the editor and express your feelings and preferences. That is legal, and no one can tell you that you arent allowed to do that. The third virtue Ben Franklin wanted America to have was Humor. Franklin liked the idea of using playful and safe humor in life. He believed that if there wasnt much humor, life would be boring and serious, and not as much fun. Franklin used moor even against himself.He created a character In Poor Richard Saunders, the pseudonym he used when he began to publish an annual almanac. The beauty of Inventing a fictional author was that he could poke fun at himself by admitting half seriously that money was his main motivation. Humor is exists in America today, as well. People use it everyday, and, to say the uses humor, it could make them laugh, no matter how upset they were. Who knows what life would be without any humor. All I know is that it would be quite dull, and this country would not be as good of a place to live in, without it.The fourth virtue Ben Franklin added to the list was Humility. When Franklin made a list of personal virtues for himself that he was intent on acquiring, he very proudly showed it around to his friends, one of whom, a Quaker, pointed out that he had left one off. The friend said that Franklin was often guilty of pride, so Ben added humility to his list. To say the least, he never quite perfected the virtue. Humility means that someone is not prideful in themselves, and not full of themselves or self-absorbed. It means that you are more modest, and dont brag.You will listen to there, and give credit; instead of listening and then start talking about yourself. Humility exists, and doesnt exist today in different ways. Sometimes, we have humility, and other times we dont. Not everyones perfect, at times we may brag or boast about ourselves a little or a lot; either way we are still not being humble. Although he was guilty of it himself, Franklin hoped that America would become more humble, and maybe it has, but whether there is a little or large amount of people not being modest, we are still breaking this virtue.The fifth virtue Ben Franklin put on the list of Americas virtues was Idealism in Foreign Policy. Franklin once wrote, The influence of every power is measured by the opinion one has of its intrinsic force. When he went to Paris as an envoy during the Revolution, Franklin proved himself a master of the diplomatic doctrine of realism by playing an adroit balance-of-power game between France, Spain, the Netherlands, and later on, Britain. The main idea of this virtue, as I see it, is that Franklin basically tried to portray each countrys position as desirable to him.In a way, this virtue still exists in America today. The only thing I can think of for this virtue in todays world is Iraq. Even though it isnt ideal to be at war with a country, we do our best to fight against them and eventually hopefully end the war and win it. The sixth virtue Ben Franklin wanted was Compromise. Franklin used the phrase, Both sides must part with some of their demands, many times. He used it the most when the Constitutional Convention was deciding on the issue of whether the new Congress should be proportioned by population or have equal votes for each state.For Franklin, who personally believed in proportional representation, compromise was not only a practical approach but also a moral one. He believed that compromisers may not be great heroes, but they do make great democracies. To compromise, it means that each side will give up one or more thing that they wanted to make it fair, since both sides couldnt get everything they wanted. In this way, it makes it fairer to compromise, than to have everything one side wants. Because, when you compromise, each side may not get everything they want, but they take a little of each side and make it even. I believe that compromising still exists in America today. Compromises are made and it exists in many different ways. America compromises with political issues and with economics also. We, as a country, compromise with other countries, when we exchange or buy products, as for how much we pay and how much products we get in exchange. The same goes for politics, not everyone can get their way, so we compromise and hopefully both sides Tolerance. The great struggles of the 20th century were against fascism and then communism.The great struggle of the 21st century will be between the forces of fanatic fundamentalism and tolerance. It is vital that we remember that America was not born with the virtue of religious tolerance, but had to earn it. For example, Franklin left Boston and ended up in Philadelphia, a place unlike much of the world. There were Lutheran, Moravian, Quakers, and even Jews living side by side in what became as the City of Brotherly Love. Franklin helped formulate the creed that they would all be better off, personally and economically, if they embraced an attitude of tolerance.So, basically, everyone had to have tolerance for other people, (and their religion) even if it wasnt of their liking, and accept their choices. I definitely think that tolerance still exists in America today. I actually think that it has gotten better. More people are accepting other peoples preferences and religions now than when Franklin was President. I think people realize that its okay to have different religions, and that you should respect others of their religious choices. I believe that the strongest virtue in America today is Humor.The reason why I think this is because I think a lot of people use humor in everyday life and its the virtue that comes the most naturally. If you think about it, America is full of humor, more than any of the other seven virtues. This is why I think it is the strongest. I think the weakest virtue in America today is Humility. There is still a lot of bragging and boasting coming from people of all ages. People will brag about anything they can think of, whether its about money or how great their Christmas lights are.Thats not what kind of country Benjamin Franklin wanted; he wanted a country that was more modest, and not as full of themselves. Im not saying that everyone in the US is like this, but some are, and its not exactly the best quality to have. The most important virtues for Americans to follow today are An Aversion to Tyranny, Compromise, and Free Press. If people didnt follow An Aversion to Tyranny, this entry could be a lot different. Its possible that we could have a different type of leader in charge and we couldnt get to choose who the leader was. If half of America decides they dont want to have a president anymore then we would really not know what to do. If people didnt follow the virtue to Compromise, it would also affect our country a lot. Without any compromising, nothing would get done and nothing would get bought. If you think about when youre buying a house or a car, if you dont compromise to get the price you want then you wont be able to purchase it. Each did has to give a little for things to work, and if neither side wanted to compromise, it would be very hard for the house or car to get sold, and for you to be able to purchase one for the price you want. Free Press, is a very important virtue for the US to have and to follow as well. Without it, I think America would be an angrier place to live, and people could possibly get in more fights because they were taking out their feelings on people instead of writing them down, to the newspaper. Even though a lot of people dont free write to the newspaper, they can still read what there people are writing to it, and see what other people are struggling with.Maybe the people who were reading the newspaper were struggling with the same issue that the person who wrote it were and that could help the person reading it with their problems as well. Ben Franklin wrote these virtues as advice for Americans, Americans today is to remember these seven virtues, and try your best to follow and respect them, as Franklin wanted. If everyone was aware of the seven virtues Ben Franklin wrote, and learned about them and truly tried their best to follow them, it could actually make a difference in this world. Maybe there would be less fighting if people were more humble and didnt brag as much.Maybe things would get done faster if people would Just take the time to compromise and work things out. We should try to be tolerant of others because if you try your best at being open-minded, it will help you become a better person, and it will help you get along with others better. If everybody tried their absolute best on all of the seven virtues that Franklin wanted for America, it really could make a difference. So, my advice to you is to follow them, and work at them everyday, and maybe one day we will have the America that Ben Franklin wanted.